Research Article

Nutritional and structural evaluation of selected Black gram varieties for preparation of Fermented Thick Pancake (Dosa)

Kavitha B*, Sugasini D*, Poorna CR Yalagala, Hemalatha C, Kanchana S, Meenakshi V and Umamaheswari R

Published: 12 March, 2018 | Volume 2 - Issue 1 | Pages: 001-009

The quality characteristics of selected black gram varieties viz., VBN 5, VBN 7, ADT 3, T9 and CO 6 and were evaluated for their suitability for the preparation of thick pancake. The foaming stability and foaming capacity were found to be maximum in VBN 5, CO 6 and T9. Maximum rise in volume was recorded in CO 6 (149 ml) followed by VBN 5 (148 ml) and T9 (147 ml) which is an indication good quality of thick pancake. Thick pancake prepared using 5 black gram varieties were analyzed for the physicochemical and microbial load. The texture profile viz., springiness, cohesiveness, chewiness and gumminess was evaluated for VBN 5, CO 6, T9 and VBN 7 respectively. The protein content was higher in thick pancake prepared from VBN 5 (25.47/100 g) compared to CO 6 (24.66 g/100g). Among the selected varieties, CO 6, T9 and VBN 5 had good batter content, texture, and microstructure and were found to be most suitable for thick pancake preparation.

Read Full Article HTML DOI: 10.29328/journal.afns.1001011 Cite this Article Read Full Article PDF


Black gram varieties; Physicochemical parameters; Texture; Microstructure; Thick pancake (Dosa)


  1. Chelliah R, Ramakrishnan SR, Premkumar D, Antony U. Accelerated fermentation of Idli batter using Eleusine coracana and Pennisetum glaucum. J Food Sci Technol. 2017; 54: 2626-2637. Ref.: https://goo.gl/K4mA9W
  2. Ohariya P, Singh A, Rajput LPS. Quality attributes of instant kodo-soy idli mix as affected by fermentation period. IJCS; 2017; 5: 1611-1615. Ref.: https://goo.gl/RE98Ym
  3. Balasubramanian S, Jincy MG, Ramanathan M, Chandra P, Deshpande SD. Studies on millet idli batter and its quality evaluation. Ifrj. 2015; 22: 139-142. Ref.: https://goo.gl/2Utcrs
  4. Sozer N, Holopainen‐Mantila U, Poutanen K. Traditional and New Food Uses of Pulses. Cereal Chemistry 2017; 94: 66-73. Ref.: https://goo.gl/k9BtHF
  5. Adebo OA, Njobeh PB, Adebiyi JA, Gbashi S, Phoku JZ, et al. Fermented Pulse-Based Food Products in Developing Nations as Functional Foods and Ingredients. InTech. 2018. Ref.: https://goo.gl/MjiAms
  6. Chandrasekar RSC, Chamlagain B, Kariluoto S, Piironen V, Saris PEJ. Biofortification of riboflavin and folate in idli batter, based on fermented cereal and pulse, by Lactococcus lactis N8 and Saccharomyces boulardii SAA655. J Appl Microbiol. 2017; 122: 1663-1671. Ref.: https://goo.gl/sE3QEG
  7. Rani P, Kumar A, Purohit SR, Rao PS. Impact of fermentation and extrusion processing on physicochemical, sensory and bioactive properties of rice-black gram mixed flour. LWT-Food Science and Technology. 2018; 89: 155-163. Ref.: https://goo.gl/BcjcKJ
  8. Venkateshmurthy K, Raghavarao KS. Analysis of modes of heat transfer in baking Indian rice pan cake (Dosa,) a breakfast food. J Food Sci Technol. 2015; 52: 5357-5363. Ref.: https://goo.gl/URh4X2
  9. El Sheikha AF. Revolution in Fermented Foods: From Artisan Household Technology to the Era of Biotechnology. Molecular Techniques in Food Biology: Safety, Biotechnology, Authenticity and Traceability. 2018; 241. Ref.: https://goo.gl/6gXVBb
  10. Melini F, Melini V, Luziatelli F, Ruzzi M. Current and Forward‐Looking Approaches to Technological and Nutritional Improvements of Gluten‐Free Bread with Legume Flours: A Critical Review. Comprehensive Reviews in Food Science and Food Safety. 2017; 16: 1101-1122. Ref.: https://goo.gl/z7wQNy
  11. Kohajdová Z. Fermented cereal products. In Current Developments in Biotechnology and Bioengineering. 2017; 91-117. Ref.: https://goo.gl/6mkC3L
  12. Beniwal P, Jood S. Development, chemical composition and antioxidant activity of dosa prepared using by-products from legume milling industry. Asian J. Dairy & Food Res. 2015; 34: 247-250. Ref.: https://goo.gl/LuxjWG
  13. Narayanan J, Sanjeevi V, Rohini U, Trueman P, Viswanathan V. Postprandial glycaemic response of foxtail millet dosa in comparison to a rice dosa in patients with type 2 diabetes. Indian J Med Res. 2016; 144: 712-717. Ref.: https://goo.gl/JW4E5X
  14. Haripriya A, Mercy L. Development and quality assessment of horse gram based instant dosa mix. ijfn. 2017; 2: 80-84. Ref.: https://goo.gl/cMQHTH
  15. Margasahayam A, Balraj Y. Properties of food ingredients during processing in a domestic mixer grinder and subsequent storage: A review. J Food Process Engg. 2018. Ref.: https://goo.gl/6WqCSi
  16. Priyanka B, Sudesh J. Development, Chemical Composition and Antioxidant Activity of Dosa Prepared Using Bengal Gram Seed Coat. Int J Adv Nutri Health Sci. 2015; 3: 109. Ref.: https://goo.gl/okLLwp
  17. Lin JY, Humbert ES, Sosulki FW. Certain functional properties of sun flower meal products. Journal of Food Science. 1974; 39: 368-370. Ref.: https://goo.gl/fpKNUL
  18. Tanaka M, Thanankul D, Lee TC, Chichester CO. A simplified method for the quantitative determination of sucrose, raffinose, and stachyose in legume seeds. J Food Sci. 1975; 93: 665-670. Ref.: https://goo.gl/36J1sc
  19. Cohen EH. Association of Official Analytical Chemists. 1917; 54: 212.
  20. Kanchana S, Sinkaravadivel A, Alagusundaram K. Standardization of selected ethnic fermented foods and beverages by rationalization of indigenous knowledge, Project submitted by National Agricultural Innovation Project. 2013; 7-8.
  21. Saini RS, Sharma, KD, Dhankar OP, Kaushik RA. Laboratory manual of analytical techniques in Horticulture. Agrobios Pub. 2000; 72. Ref.: https://goo.gl/11ppBg
  22. Clark J, Cameron Smith, Cori Stevens. Microwavable Pancake Mixes and Methods of Preparing Pancakes. U.S. Patent Application. 2017. Ref.: https://goo.gl/35brjh
  23. Official method of Analysis, Association of Official Analytical Chemists. USA. 1995.
  24. Official method of Analysis. Association of Official Analytical Chemists. USA. 1998.
  25. Official method of Analysis. Association of Official Analytical Chemists. USA. 2005.
  26. Testing methods in food microbiology. Elsevier. 1984; 395-397.
  27. Asp NG, Johansson CG, Hallmer H, Silijestom M. Rapid enzymatic assay of insoluble and soluble dietary fibre. J of Agricultural and Food Chemistry. 1983; 31; 476-482. Ref.: https://goo.gl/rdgPmA
  28. Gomez KH, Gomez AA. Statistical Procedures for Agricultural Research. 1984; 381. Ref.: https://goo.gl/BCaoZ3
  29. Kavitha B, Hemalatha G, Kanchana S, Sundaram SP, Sivasubramaniam K. Physicochemical, functional, pasting properties and nutritional composition of selected black gram (Phaseolus mungo L.) varieties. Indian J SciTechnol. 2013; 6: 5386-5394. Ref.: https://goo.gl/B9b54o
  30. Muralikrishna G, Bhat UR, Tharanathan RN. Functional characteristics of the mucilaginous polysaccharides derived from Cowpea (Vigna Sinensis), Black Gram (Phaseolus mungo) and Linseed (Linumusitatissimum). Starch/Starke. 1987; 39: 107-109. Ref.: https://goo.gl/PEYUoQ
  31. Nazini P, Shalini S. Standardization and quality evaluation of idli prepared from pearl millet. Int J Curr Res. 2010; 5: 84-87. Ref.: https://goo.gl/CPBjxv
  32. Asha MR, Susheelamma NS, Bhat KK. Effect of rheological properties of batter and addition of thermally modified rice on quality of vada-a black gram based fried product. J of Food Science and Technology. 2009; 46: 212-216. Ref.: https://goo.gl/6HEk3q
  33. Poongodi Vijayakumar T, Jemima Bery Mohankumar. Quality evaluation of dosa from millet flour blend incorporated composite flour. Elixir Food Science. 2011; 34: 2624-2629. Ref.: https://goo.gl/8LmW33
  34. Tharnathan L, Mahadevamma D. Texture analysis of idli. J of Food Science and Technology. 2003; 25: 111-113.
  35. Sanz-Serrano F, Sagues C, Feyissa AH, Adler-Nissen J, Llorente S. Modeling of pancake frying with non-uniform heating source applied to domestic cookers. J Food Engg. 2017; 195: 114-127. Ref.: https://goo.gl/HZcfDD
  36. Lu Y, Memon A, Fuerst P, Kizonas A, Morris C, et al. Changes in the phenolic acids composition during pancake preparation: Whole and refined grain flour and processed food classification by UV and NIR spectral fingerprinting method-Proof of concept. J Food Composition and Analysis. 2017; 60: 10-16. Ref.: https://goo.gl/nAXV9Q
  37. Alla S. Isolation and characterization of bioactive compounds from black gram and its milled fractions, Project repor. 2010; 2-5.
  38. Balasubramanian S, Viswanathan R. Properties of idli batter during its fermentation time. J of Food Processing Preservation. 2007; 31: 32-40. Ref.: https://goo.gl/x6YRn4
  39. Lu HZ, Li-Te Li, Wei Cao, Zai-Gui, Tatsumi E. Influence of natural fermentation on physicochemical characteristics of rice noodles. Int J Food Sci Technol. 2003; 38: 505-510. Ref.: https://goo.gl/fbZtNw
  40. Reddy CK, Sushellamma NS, Tharanathan RN. Composition and properties of mucilaginous polysaccharide from native and fermented black gram flour. Carbohydrate Polymers. 1990; 12: 189-202. Ref.: https://goo.gl/xRYPXZ
  41. Sura K, Sarg S, Garg FC. Microbiological and biochemical changes during fermentation of kanji. J Food Sci Technol. 2001; 38: 165-167.
  42. Susheelamma NS, Rao MV. Functional role of the arabinogalactan of black gram in the texture of leavened foods (Steamed Puddings). J Food Science. 1979; 44: 1309-1313. Ref.: https://goo.gl/zQwURb


Figure 1

Figure 1

Figure 1

Figure 2

Similar Articles

Recently Viewed

Read More

Most Viewed

Read More