Abstract

Research Article

Development and quality evaluation of Jam from Watermelon (Citrullus Lanatus) and Pawpaw (Carica Papaya) juice

Adedeji Temileye Omotayo*

Published: 28 November, 2017 | Volume 1 - Issue 2 | Pages: 063-071

The seasonal nature of most fruits available in the market coupled with inadequate storage and processing facilities has limited their consumption by majority of the people in the country. Jams made from fruits are good bread spread rather than any other food products because they serve as adequate balance diet and it contains antioxidant such as vitamin C and A which play an important role in preventing cancer, cardiovascular problem and improvement of eyesight. Pawpaw and watermelon fruits have been reported to be nutritive and high in antioxidant properties that can scavenge free radicals, thereby improving the antioxidant status of the body. It is therefore deemed fit to produce jam from these perishable commodities in other to make them available all through the year and as well as adding to varieties of food products. The aqueous extracts of watermelon with pawpaw juice were processed into jam and the physicochemical properties of the jam samples were analysed. The resulting jam samples showed moisture content ranging between 30.60-35.30%, protein 0.40-0.80%, fat 0.20-0.40%, ash 1.20-1.70%, crude fibre 0.10-0.30%, carbohydrate 62.10-67.16%, β-carotene 610-1350µg/100g and ascorbic acid 9.60-15.40mg/100g. The jam samples were found to be very nutritive and high in antimicrobial and antioxidant properties that can scavenge free radicals, thereby can improve the antioxidant status of the body. Sensory evaluation tests showed that the samples were acceptable and compared favourably with the commercial imported brand while sample AA had the highest preference in all the sensory attributes evaluated by the panellists. Microbiological examination also showed that the jam samples had total plate count ranging from 4.10x101 to 2.00 x101 cfu/g, yeast and mould count ranged from 2.10x101 to 1.00 x101cfu/g with no observable coliform count.

Read Full Article HTML DOI: 10.29328/journal.afns.1001010 Cite this Article Read Full Article PDF

Keywords:

Pawpaw; Watermelon; Jam; Sensory; Microbial; Physicochemical

References

  1. Maynard DN. Watermelons: Characteristics, Production, and Marketing. Alexandria: ASHS Press. 2001; 227. Ref.: https://goo.gl/AuK6hM
  2. ERS and USDA. Vegetables and Melons Yearbook Data. Economic Research Service US Department of Agriculture. 2011. Ref.: https://goo.gl/VNfSrS
  3. USDA, and NASS. Vegetables 2009 Summary, US Department of Agriculture National Agricultural Statistics Service. 2010; 84.
  4. Perkins-Veazie P, Collins JK, Siddiq M, Dolan K. Juice and Carotenoid Yield from Processed Watermelon. J Horticul Sci. 2006; 41: 510-518. Ref.: https://goo.gl/9RoLNW
  5. Dimitrovski D, Bicanic D, Luterotti S, van Twisk C, Buijnsters JG, et al. The Concentration of Trans-Lycopene in Postharvest Watermelon: An Evaluation of Analytical Data Obtained by Direct Methods. J Postharvest Biol Technol. 2010; 58: 21-28. Ref.: https://goo.gl/djSuid
  6. Quek S, Chok N, Swedlund P. The physicochemical Properties of Spray-Dried Watermelon Powders. J Chemical Engg Process. 2007; 46: 386-392. Ref.: https://goo.gl/qXdSBE
  7. Falade K, Igbeka J, Ayanwuyi F. Kinetic of Mass Transfer and Colour Changes During Osmotic Dehydration of Watermelon. J Food Engg. 2007; 80: 979-985. Ref.: https://goo.gl/7wGqZj
  8. Pomper KW, Layne DR. The North American Pawpaw: Botany and Horticulture. Horticul Reviews. 2005; 3: 351-354. Ref.: https://goo.gl/SwVybz
  9. Ayoola PB, Adeyeye A. Phytochemical and Nutrient Evaluation of Carica Papaya (pawpaw) Leaves. Int J Recent Research App Studies. 2010; 5: 101-107. Ref.: https://goo.gl/iP8Fqh
  10. Ihekoronye AI, Ngoddy PO. Integrated Food Science and Technology for the Tropics. Macmillan Publishers Ltd. 1985; 65-193. Ref.: https://goo.gl/z3f1Dm
  11. Jones SC, Peterson NR, Turner TA, Pomper KW, end Layne DR. Pawpaw Planting Guides (PIB-002). Frank fort: Kentucky State University Cooperative Extension Program. 1999.
  12. Oloyede OI. Chemical Profile of Unripe Pulp of Carica papaya (pawpaw). Pakistan J Nutrition. 2005; 4: 379-381. Ref.: https://goo.gl/jdu3X3
  13. Nwinyi Chukwuemeka O, Anthonia AB. Antifungal Effects of Pawpaw Seeds Extracts and Papain on Post-Harvest of Carica papaya L. Fruit Rot. African J Agricul Research. 2010; 5: 1531-1535. Ref.: https://goo.gl/YWK9uL
  14. Doughari JH, Elmahmood AM, Manzara S. Studies on the Antibacterial Activity of Root Extracts of Carica papaya. African J Microbiol Research. 2007; 37-41. Ref.: https://goo.gl/FNmyDQ
  15. Mahmood, AA, Sidik K, Salmah I. Wound Healing Activity of Carica papaya L. Aqueous Extracts in Rats. Int J Molecul Med Adv Science.2005; 1: 398-401. Ref.: https://goo.gl/iJoFCx
  16. World Health Survey. World Health Organisation. 2010.
  17. BeLue R, Okoro TA, Iwelunmor J, Taylor KD, Degboe AN, et al. An Overview of Cardiovascular Risk Factor Burden in Sub-Saharan African Countries: A Socio-Cultural Perspective. Global Health. 2009; 5: 10-20. Ref.: https://goo.gl/d7Npta
  18. Falana IB. Effects of Low Irradiation Doses and Some Physical Treatments on the Keeping Qualities of Plantain (Musa AAB). 1997; 215.
  19. Adedeji TO, Oluwalana IB. Physicochemical, Sensory and Microbial Analysis of Wine produced from Watermelon (Citrullus lanatus) and Pawpaw (Carica papaya) Blend. J Food Science and Quality Management. 2013; 19: 41-50. Ref.: https://goo.gl/UYVBLk
  20. Fellows P. Guidelines for Small Scale Fruits and Vegetable Processors. FAO Agricultural Science Bulletin-127. 1997. Ref.: https://goo.gl/Bd6bdx
  21. Iw MO. Handbook of Sensory methods and Analysis. 1st edition. 02.
  22. Association of Analytical Chemist (25th edition). Official Methods of Analysis. 2005.
  23. International Commission of Microbiology Specifications of Foods in Microbial Ecology of Food Commodities. 2005; 2: 522-532.
  24. Ghana Standard Board. Specification for Fruit Squashes and Fruit Cordials. 1995.
  25. Adelakun OE, Oyelade OJ, Ade-Omowaye BIO, Adeyemi IA, Vanderventer MO, et al. Influence of Pre-Treatment on Physicochemical and Functional Properties of a Nigeria Okro Seed (Albemoschus esculentus moench) flour. Food and Chemical Toxicol. 2009; 47: 657-661. Ref.: https://goo.gl/PQZH1G
  26. Phillips J, Muir JG, Birkett A, Zhong XL, Jones PJ, et al. Effect of Resistant Starch on Faecal Bulk and Fermentation-Dependent Events in Humans. Am J Clin Nutr. 1995; 62: 112-116. Ref.: https://goo.gl/e4dzRF
  27. Cummings JH, Beatty ER, Kingman SM, Bingham SA, Englyst HN. Digestion and Physiological Properties of Resistant Starch in Human Bowels. Br J Nutr. 1996; 75: 733-738. Ref.: https://goo.gl/uosiFo
  28. NSRL: National Soyabean Research Laboratory. A publication of National Soybean Research Laboratory on Soybean Processing; from field to consume. 2002.
  29. Muller HG. An Introduction to Tropical Food Science. Cambridge University Press. 1998; 16-46; 112-118. Ref.: https://goo.gl/BsBzvx
  30. Chinma CE, Igyor MA. Micronutrients and Anti-Nutritional Contents of Selected Tropical Vegetables Grown in South East, Nigeria. Nigeria Food Journal. 2007; 25: 111-116. Ref.: https://goo.gl/zxJb5j
  31. Olson JA, Hodges RE. Recommended Dietary Intake (RDI) of Vitamin C in Humans. Am J Clin Nutr. 1987; 45: 693-703. Ref.: https://goo.gl/gR8AVD
  32. Li Y, Schellhorn HE. New Developments and Novel Therapeutic Perspectives for Vitamin C. J Nutr. 2007; 137: 2171-2184. Ref.: https://goo.gl/CjZQwt
  33. Car C, Frei B. Toward a New Recommended Dietary Allowance for Vitamin C Based on Antioxidant and Health Effects in Human Blood Plasma. Am J Clin Nutr. 1999; 69: 1086-1107. Ref.: https://goo.gl/vyNSXM
  34. Jacob RA, Stoudeh G. Vitamin C Function and Status in Chronic Disease. Nutrition & Dietary Care. 2002; 5: 66-74. Ref.: https://goo.gl/8pzXyo
  35. Gershoff SN. Vitamin C (ascorbic acid): New Roles, New Requirements. J Nutri Revol. 1993; 51: 313-326. Ref.: https://goo.gl/nPWcZ9
  36. Omobuwajo TO, Ogunsua AO, Abiose SH, Adeyemi IA. Prospects for Sustainable Growth of the Food and Beverage Industry In Nigeria Based On Locally Available Resources. The Obafemi Awolowo University. A Paper Presented at the 17th Annual Conference of the Nigerian Institute of Food Science and Technology. 1993.
  37. Menottetali A, Krombout D, Blackburn H, Fidance F, Huzuna R, et al. Food Intake Pattern and 25years Mortality from Coronary Heart Disease Cross Cultural Correlations in the Seven Countries Study Research Group. Human Journal of Epidemiology. 1999; 15: 507-515. Ref.: https://goo.gl/Tobfmy
  38. Krinsky NI. Actions of Carotenoids in Biological Systems. Annu Rev Nutr. 1993; 13: 1-87. Ref.: https://goo.gl/T9rHR5
  39. Onyeka EU, Nwambekwe IO. Phytochemical Profile of Some Green Leafy Vegetables in South East, Nigeria. Nigeria Food Journal. 2007; 25: 67-76. Ref.: https://goo.gl/crfSXo

Figures:

Figure 1

Figure 1

Similar Articles

Recently Viewed

Read More

Most Viewed

Read More